Coffee cups, lids and standard plastic to-go containers are not included in the single-use plastic ban due to concerns that there are not enough viable alternatives.
Individuals who sell, distribute, or supply prohibited items will be fined $370 and businesses will be fined $1849.
If a dispute goes to court, individuals can be forced to pay upwards of $11,000 and businesses upwards of $55,000.
However, the state government said only those who repeatedly flout the rules will be punished.
The ban comes months after the collapse of REDcycle, a recycling program that warehoused soft plastics instead of recycling them.
The government is considering whether to ban flexible plastic packaging such as raw vegetables and whether to limit plastics used in the construction industry.
About a third of Victoria’s litter now consists of single-use plastic.
Victoria banned lightweight plastic bags in 2019, and the Environmental Protection Agency says this has reduced plastic bag litter by 77%.